Canada occupies the northern part of the North America continent and a number of islands, the biggest of which are Vancouver in the west, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in the east, and Victoria and Baffin Islands in the north. The country is washed by three oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic, the Atlantic. Canada is bounded by Alaska in the west and the rest of the USA in the south. The total area of the country is 3.851.809 square miles. Administratively it is divided into 10 provinces and 2 territories.
Population of Canada is 26 million people. The inhabitants of Canada are English, French, Indians, Eskimos (Inuit) and emigrants from Italy, Ukraine, and other countries. The country is bilingual, so there are two official languages in Canada – English and French. Canada has a great system of mountains in the east and in the west. The highest top of extinct volcano, situated in the Rocky Mountains, is Logan, it is 6.050 metres high.
The north of the country is cold tundra, the central plains form the prairie. Canada has a lot of rivers. The Mackenzie, the St. Lawrence, the Frazer are the longest. Many rivers have a great hydroelectric energy potential. Canada is called a country of lakes, because it has nearly four million lakes. Canada shares the Great Lakes which include lakes-Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario with the USA. Canada also has Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake, Lake Winnipeg and many others.
The Niagara Falls (48 m high) on the Niagara river is one of the most splendid sights in the world. Four million tourists visit the picturesque place every year. The Angel Falls is considered to be the largest in the world,-it is 979 metres high, and people call it the eighth wonder of the world.
Canada has several climatic zones; from Arctic in the north to moderate in the east and west. Winter lasts from 4 to 5 months with heavy snowfalls. There is much rainfall in the east and west. The average winter temperature in the north is -35° C, and -20° C in the south. As for summer temperature it is +3° C in the north, and+20 °C in the south.
The official English capital of the country is Ottawa. Its population is 750 thousand people, it is an industrial and commercial centre of Canada. Quebec is the non-official French capital, its population is 576 thousand people.. This city was the capital of the United Canada for some years. Quebec has the university.
Ottawa, Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver are the largest cities of Canada. Montreal and Vancouver are also the ports of great importance. All the parts of the country have cold weather in winter. Trees and grass grow well in the south. The common trees of Canada are pine, maple, cedar, fur-tree. In tundra moss, walnut may be seen. The fauna of the country is comparatively rich. In howy owl. Tn the forests hears, wolves, foxes, elks, heavers, lynxesp-eindeer, squirrels, martens are numerous.
In the Arctic zone you can see the polar bear and snowy goat. Canada has 18 national parks. It’s well-known that Canada is rich in natural resources. It leads the world in the output of asbestos, nickel, platinum, aluminium, cobalt, zinc, gold, silver, uranium, iron ores, copper, lead etc. Canada’s wealth of natural resources are minerals and forests. In fact Canada is the world’s largest manufacturer of newsprint. Canada is also the main supplier of oi gas, timber, pulp and paper to the USA. The leading industries are ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, shipbuilding, ship-repairing,woodworking, pulp and paper industry, machine engineering, textiles, chemical, automobile, fishing.
Agriculture is the important sector of the country’s development. Canada grows wheat, oats, sugar-beet, soy- bean, tobacco and potatoes. Traditionally Canada exports wheat, dairy products, meat, eggs, fish, timber and machines to many countries. Canadians love any sport on water. It doesn’t matter if it is frozen. They mostly play ice-hockey and also go in for ice-fishing, skating, skiing. In summer people go in for water skiing, canoeing and sailing as well as playing golf and baseball.
Canada is a federal state and a member of the Commonwealth. The head of the country is the Queen of England, represented by the Governor General who is appointed for a period of 5 years. The Federal Parliament sits in Ottawa, the capital of Canada. It consists of the Senate, numbering 104 members, appointed by the Governor General and the Houses of Commons which has 295 members, elected by the population for a period of 5 years. Parliament works 7-8 months a year. The leading figure in political life is the Prime Minister. The Constitution was adopted in 1982, it is the main law of the country. The main political parties are the Liberal Party, the New Democratic Party, the Progressive, the Conservative Party and others. The national flag, adopted in 1965, consists of white field, franked by red vertical field on either end, with red maple leaf on the white field.
The 1st of July is Canada Day, all the country celebrates joining together of the different regions of Canada with fireworks and parades.