Ukraine is situated in the south-eastern part of Europe. It occupies the territory of about 603700 square kilometres and administratively is divided into 24 regions, and the Crimean autonomous republic. The population of Ukraine is near 52 million people. The country is inhabited by the Ukrainians and representatives of more than 100 nationalities.
The geographical position is very favourable for the development of its relations with countries of Europe. It is bounded by Russia, Byelorus, Moldova, Poland, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia.
The official language of Ukraine is Ukrainian.
95% (per cent) of the Ukrainian area is flat, lowlands occupy a considerable part of the country, and the rest of it is mountainous. The highest mountains, situated in the country are Roman Kosh in the Crimea, it is 1545 metres high, and Goverla in the Carpathian mountains, it is 2061 metres high. Most of the territory is covered with woods and forest-steppes. Ukraine is washed by the Black sea and the Asov one.
The main navigable rivers, running through its territory are the Dnieper, the Dnester, the Proot, the South Bug, the Seversky Donets, the Danube. Our country has a lot of lakes on its territory, the largest is Yalpug.
Ukraine’s territory lies in the temperate belt, so the climate of Ukraine is temperately continental, mild, but in the southern part it is subtropical, that is why a lot of people prefer to spend their summer leaves in one of the best resort area in Ukraine.
As a rule snow falls in winter, but it never lies on the ground for long. Spring and summer are usually sunny, in autumn it often rains. The average temperature in winter is -20° C, in summer is +22° C.
Nature of Ukraine is beautiful. Among the trees growing in the Ukrainian territory are oak, asp, maple, pine, birch, lime, snow-ball tree, chestnut, poplar and evergreen trees: palm-tree, cypress, eucalyptus, platan, magnolia in the south.
The fauna of Ukraine is various. Red deer, wild boar, fox, squirrel, elk, wolf, lynx, hare, badger, marten, hamster are to be found there. There are about 350 kinds of birds in Ukraine. Characteristic of the birds are dove, sea gull, crane, owl, stork, woodpecker, sparrow, titmouse. Near the coasts dolphins, bull heads, some kinds of sharks can be seen. The lakes and rivers are rich in perches, pikes, carps and sheats.
Ukraine has 12 national parks. Near Yalta are the Nikitsky Botanical Gardens containing trees, flowers and animals, from all parts of the world.
Ukraine is a highly industrialized country whose economic potential is great.
The country has many industrial raw materials, it has rich deposits of iron, coal, oil, natural gas, salt, manganese, sulphur, graphite, bauxite, limestone, nickel, cadmium and other natural resources. Our country is also rich in deposits of mercury, titanium and other ores. Large reserves of red and grey granite are found in Ukraine. There are many curative mineral waters in Ukraine.
The leading industries of the country are ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, aircraft, shipbuilding, ship-repairing, mechanical engineering, electronics and electrical engineering, coal-mining, power engineering, automobile, tourism. The country produces planes, ocean liners, locomotives, robots, TV sets, computers, tractors, excavators, cars, grain harvesters, microscopes, synthetic diamonds and so on.
The moderate climate and rich soil are very favourable for agriculture, it is an integrate part of economy, which is intensively developing. In Ukraine they grow sugar-beet, wheat, rye, rice, buckwheat, maize, soyabean, sunflower and a large variety of vegetables and fruit. Cattle and pig-breeding is spread on the most part of Ukraine. It is the famous producer of dairy products, meat, poultry. The country has experimental stations and a lot of research agricultural institutions on its territory.
The capital of the country is Hero-City of Kiev (2,5 mln.). It is one of the ancient cities of Europe. The main seaports of Ukraine are Odessa, Sevastopol, Kerch, Nikolaev, Yalta.
Ukraine was proclaimed an independent state in 1991.
Now Ukraine is the sovereign state. It is a member of the United Nations Organization since 1953 and participates in the work of many international organizations. It has its own territory, flag, anthem and coat-of-arms. Constitution of Ukraine is a basic law of our country. It was adopted on the 28th of June 1996 and proclaimed the sovereignty of the state and absolute power of the country on its territory. The Constitution states self-determination of the Ukrainian nation, national and state power, rights and duties of all citizens, the protection of nature and all the sorts of property. It states the right of the country to have National Armed Forces and determines ruling bodies.
By the form of the government Ukraine combines the elements of presidential and parliamentary republic.
According to the Constitution three levels of power are to be differentiated: the executive, the legislative and the judicial. The head of the country is the President, who is elected for 5 years. The executive power belongs to the President and the Cabinet of Ministers, which is the highest executive body of the state. The governr of the state is formed by the President.